Kacho-e (花鳥絵) or kachō-ga (花鳥画), or bird and flower prints, were a popular genre of Japanese  woodblock prints that emerged in the 18th century. These prints depicted various species of birds and flowers in naturalistic detail, often in the context of their natural habitats. Kacho-e prints were highly valued for their beauty and accuracy, and they were widely collected both in Japan and abroad.

The popularity of kacho-e prints was due in part to their reflection of traditional Japanese values and aesthetics, which placed a high value on harmony with nature. The prints were often imbued with symbolic and allegorical meaning, such as the association of certain birds or flowers with specific seasons or qualities. In this way, kacho-e prints served not only as beautiful works of art but also as expressions of cultural values and beliefs. Inspired by the principles of Shinto and Buddhist traditions, kachō-e concentrates on studies of birds, flowers and insects, as well as other scenes from nature.

While the conventional Western approach to natural history was based on description and classification (Naturalism, Darwin’s Voyages, etc.), the Japanese perspective was focused with how all things fit together, and related to experience, perception, and aesthetics.

One of the most famous kacho-e artists was Itō Jakuchū (1716-1800), whose vivid and detailed depictions of birds and flowers were highly prized during his lifetime and continue to be celebrated today. Jakuchū’s prints were characterized by a meticulous attention to detail and a vibrant, expressive use of color. He drew inspiration from both traditional Japanese art and contemporary Dutch naturalism, synthesizing these influences into a distinctive and innovative style.

Other notable kacho-e artists include Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), who created a series of bird and flower prints in the 1830s that were highly influential in shaping the genre, and Suzuki Kiitsu (1796-1858), who was renowned for his delicate and elegant depictions of flowers. These artists and many others contributed to the development of kacho-e as a major genre of Japanese art, and their work continues to be celebrated for its beauty, technical excellence, and cultural significance. In the 20th century artists such as Ohara Koson, Yoshimoto Gesso, and Tsuchiya Rakusan continued the rich tradition.

Masters of kachō-e were guided by both expression and emotion; they succeeded in capturing the experience of being overwhelmed by the saturated color of a blossom or charmed by the clever personality of a bird in the wild. Imbued with metaphorical significance beyond their physical beauty, specific pairings of birds, insects, and flowers have formed the basis for a tradition that continues to this day.


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  • Narazaki, Muneshige. “Masterpieces of Kacho-e: The Beauty of Japanese Birds and Flowers.” Pie Books, 2007.
  • Smith, Lawrence. “Japanese Bird-and-Flower Prints of the 18th and 19th Centuries.” Dover Publications, 1979.
  • Wada, Stephanie. “Kacho-ga: The Flower and Bird Prints of Japan.” Kodansha International, 1983.
  • Weston, Mark. “Bird and Flower Prints of the Edo Period (1603-1868): An Appreciation.” Floating World Editions, 2015.