Kawanabe, Kyōsai

Kyōsai Kawanabe (河鍋 暁斎, May 18, 1831 – April 26, 1889) was a Japanese artist and caricaturist known for his unique style and irreverent humor. Born in the Edo period, Kyosai grew up during a time of political and social change in Japan. He developed an early interest in drawing and painting, and began studying under the ukiyo-e master Utagawa Kuniyoshi at the age of 14. After apprenticing with Utagawa Kuniyoshi, he received his artistic training in the Kanō school under Maemura Tōwa, who gave him the nickname “The Painting Demon”, but soon abandoned the formal traditions for the greater freedom of the popular school.

Kyosai quickly established himself as a talented artist, and began producing illustrations for popular publications such as newspapers and magazines. His work was characterized by a bold, energetic style and a playful sense of humor, often featuring exaggerated and distorted figures. His very long painting on makimono “The battle of the farts” may be seen as a caricature of this genre.

Kyosai’s reputation as a caricaturist grew, and he began to receive commissions from wealthy clients for portrait caricatures. His work became increasingly popular, and he was eventually appointed as the official artist of the Tosa Domain in 1865.

In addition to his caricatures, Kyosai was also known for his paintings and woodblock prints. He was particularly skilled in the art of kacho-ga, or bird-and-flower paintings, and produced many works in this style throughout his career.

Despite his success, Kyosai was known for his unconventional and sometimes controversial behavior. He was a heavy drinker and smoker, and was known to engage in public displays of vulgarity and mischief. His irreverent attitude towards authority and tradition made him a beloved figure among the common people, but also brought him into conflict with some members of the establishment.

Kyosai’s influence on Japanese art and culture can still be felt today. His dynamic and irreverent style has inspired generations of artists, and his playful sense of humor remains an important element of Japanese popular culture.


  • “Kyosai: The Master Caricaturist” by James T. Ulak, Japan Society Gallery (2006)
  • “Kyosai: Japan’s Last Boy Genius” by Allen Hockley, University of Washington Press (2012)
  • “Kyosai: Madness and Humor in Modern Japan” by Michiaki Kawakita, Kodansha International (1982)